By Pieter Vermaas, Peter Kroes, Maarten Franssen, Ibo van de Poel, Wybo Houkes
In A Philosophy of expertise: From Technical Artefacts to Sociotechnical platforms, expertise is analysed from a chain of other views. The research begins through focussing at the so much tangible items of know-how, known as technical artefacts, after which builds step-wise in the direction of contemplating these artefacts inside their context of use, and finally as embedded in encompassing sociotechnical structures that still contain people as operators and social ideas like laws. Philosophical characterisations are given of technical artefacts, their context of use and of sociotechnical structures. Analyses are provided of ways technical artefacts are designed in engineering and what kinds of technological wisdom is excited about engineering. And the problem is taken into account how engineers and others can or can't impression the advance of know-how. those characterisations are complemented by means of moral analyses of the ethical prestige of technical artefacts and the probabilities and impossibilities for engineers to steer this prestige whilst designing artefacts and the sociotechnical platforms within which artefacts are embedded. The operating instance within the publication is aviation, the place aeroplanes are examples of technical artefacts and the realm aviation process is an instance of a sociotechnical process. concerns on the topic of the layout of quiet aeroplane engines and the factors of aviation injuries are analysed for illustrating the ethical prestige of designing, and the position of engineers therein. desk of Contents: Technical Artefacts / Technical Designing / Ethics and Designing / Technological wisdom / Sociotechnical structures / The position of Social components in Technological improvement / Ethics and unintentional results of expertise
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Extra resources for A Philosophy of Technology: From Technical Artefacts to Sociotechnical Systems (Synthesis Lectures on Engineers, Technology, and Society)
One need only think of all the technical norms that prescribe how an artefact must be designed. Another example is professional codes of conduct. In most countries, professional associations of engineers have formulated codes of conduct. This includes organisations like the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE), the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineering (ASME) in the United States, the European Federation of National Engineering Associations (FEANI) in Europe, and the Dutch association of engineers KIVI-NIRIA in the Netherlands.
This evaluation will lead to new insights about the original design problem and the chosen solution. The design problem provides ‘feedback’ – Schön’s term is ‘back talk’ – to which the engineer ‘listens’ for identifying better options to name and frame the design problem. Ultimately, the gas balloon proves to be too big and too unwieldy a solution for lifting people into the air in 14 Schön, D. [1983, 1992]. 4. ENGINEERS, DESIGNERS, USERS AND OTHER ROLES 33 an urbanised environment, which means that the problem has to be reinterpreted as the need to create a flexible kind of aircraft.
Energy to kinetic energy air electrical energy on-off signal f1: transport electrical energy f4: convert electr. 2: Subfunctions f1 , f2 , f3 and f4 of a hairdryer. The idea underlying this functional modelling method is that in the materialisation phase the designing engineer can select existing components for each subfunction or sometimes even for a whole cluster of subfunctions. 3. This repertoire is then plundered in the materialisation phase when determining which components can best meet the subfunctions f1 , f2 , … fn .